Russian Empire
February 19th, 2009 by thesuper

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Main article: Pedro I of Russia founded the Russian Empire around the year 1721
Muscovite control of the nascent nation continued after the Polish intervention under the subsequent Romanov dynasty, beginning with Tsar Michael I of Russia in 1613. Pedro I the Great, who ruled the Russian Zarate, beat the Swedish Empire during the Great Northern War, forcing him to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Difficulties) and Livonia (the latter now is Estonia and northern Latvia). This ensures access to the sea of the Russian Empire and the maritime trade in Ingria. In 1703 founded a new capital, St. Petersburg and was in large part responsible for bringing the culture of Western Europe to Russia, following its reforms.
After these reforms, Russia gained power in Europe. Catherine the Great, who ruled from 1762 to 1796, continuing the efforts of Pedro I placing Russia as one of the great European powers. Examples of European involvement in the eighteenth century, are the War of Polish Succession and the Seven Years’ War. After the division of Poland, Russia acquired significant territory in the west, which were populated mainly by people of Orthodox religion. As a result of the wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia increased its borders to the Black Sea with the aim of protection of the Christian region of the Balkans against the Turks. In 1783, Russia and the Georgian Kingdom (which was almost totally devastated by the invasions by Persians and Turks) signed the treaty under which Georgievsk Georgia (Kakheti-Kartl) received the protection of Russia.
Withdrawal of Napoleon in Moscow
Map showing the Russian Empire’s territory and influence, around 1866
In 1812, having gathered nearly half a million soldiers from France and its conquered states in Europe, Napoleon invaded Russia. However, after taking in Moscow, was forced to retreat to France. Almost 90 of the invading forces were killed in battles with the Russian army, because of the guerrillas, and the harsh winter. The Russian armies ended the pursuit of the enemy, taking their capital, Paris. The officers of the Napoleonic Wars brought to Russia the ideas of liberalism and even attempted to reduce the powers of the czar during the rebellion of dekabristas aborted in 1825, which was followed by several decades of political repression. Another outcome of the Napoleonic wars, was the establishment of Bessarabia, and Finland in the Russian Empire and the creation of Congress Poland. The permanence of the easement and the conservative policies of Nicolas I of Russia upset the development of the Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth century. As a result, the country was defeated in the Crimean War (1853’1856) by an alliance of major European powers including Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire and Piedmont-Sardinia.
His successor Nicholas I of Russia, Alexander II (1855’1881) was forced to undertake a series of comprehensive reforms and issued a decree abolishing serfdom in 1861. The great reforms of Alexander II’s reign turned increasingly rapid development and the attempts of the capitalist Sergei Witte towards industrialization. An atmosphere of eslavofilia was growing, led by the victory of Russia in the Russo-Turkish War, which forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize the independence of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and the autonomy of Bulgaria.
The failure of reforms and the abolition of agricultural growth as a result of the liberal intelligentsia, promoting continuity problems. On the eve of World War I, the position of Tsar Nicolas II and his dynasty seemed precarious.
The Russian government refused to participate in the First World War, but felt that the only alternative was acceptance of German domination of Europe. Russian bourgeois upper class and helped the war effort of the regime. Peasants and workers, in contrast with much less enthusiasm involved in the situation. Germany had an army that took the lead in Europe and a great industrial power, taking also into Austria and the Ottoman Empire and its allies in the war. Consequently, Russia was forced to fight in wars and in three other British war simultaneously. Under these circumstances the Russian war effort was impressive. Having won several major battles in 1916, the army kept away when the Russian Revolution of 1917, partly for economic reasons, but mainly because the existing public distrust toward the regime was deepened by the corruption and betrayal. Many stories were invented or greatly exaggerated, as the belief that a mystic, Grigori Rasputin, had great political influence within the government. href “” lang “en”> Manu Samoa – Translate
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