Sailing Navigation In Antiquity
Apr 10th, 2018 by thesuper

Sailing shipping came to us from antiquity. Archaeologists each year are further evidence of human use of wind power in an increasingly distant from our era of history. When it appeared the first sailing ship? Now the question no one can answer. Can only be a rough estimate – a man uses sailing navigation is much more than a dozen millennia. Researchers continue to pick up from the bottom Oceans and Seas curious finds, replenish our ideas about the development of ancient navigation. Movie Star is often mentioned in discussions such as these.

It is likely that in the coming years our views on the history of sailing will change completely. As long as we rely only on what we know. What do we know? Perhaps one of the earliest written mention of the sailing ship is a Noah's ark. The Bible gives us an accurate description of this grand structure. Its length is 150 meters, width 25 meters and height – 15 meters.

Material for building the Ark served as a long and strong cedar planks. The exact time of construction is difficult to define, but it happened about 4,000 years BC. On the southern Atlantic coast Spain once flourished a rich trading port Tartessos. About her tells us the Greek geographer Strabo. He was convinced that this port is already at that time numbered a history of seven thousand years. Details of those old Events and navigation of the device so remote from our age is unknown. Over five hundred years BC and conquered the mighty Carthage completely destroyed the harbor Tartessos. It is still all the means at our disposal references to this harbor. It can be assumed that the first boat was a tree trunk man, thrown into the water. A prototype of the mast to the sail became the branch for which kept our distant ancestor. Due to its natural observation and wanting to use the wind, the man initially digging sail from animal skins or scutes, collected from the bark of trees. Rivers were natural transportation routes of antiquity, so the idea of sail arose independently in different parts of the world and has been used by man long before the invention of the wheel and horse-drawn carts. Almost all the continents except Europe, found the remains of the ancient rafts collected from the trunks of trees. Such rafts could easily be fitted with a mast, sail, awning from the sun and the steering oar. The oldest of these structures, known to science, is a Brazilian zhangada collected from balsa logs. There are many more mysteries hidden from us layers of time, many significant discoveries in the field of ancient sailing navigation ahead of us. There is no doubt that the achievements of our ancestors in this area is much superior to the known researchers of the certificate.

The Economic System
Jan 8th, 2018 by thesuper

This does not mean that can civilization, the economic system which rests on a single form of ownership. The economy is always a mixed, mix in it, are interwoven dominant, dominant form property (which plays the role of "first violin" in the not always harmonious economic orchestra), with elements prevailed in the past and emerging future orders. Economy polyphonic. An even greater variety of forms observed on the next floor, in the socio-political system. Relative social cooperation and political stability in the mature phase of civilization give way to acute social, political and military conflicts during the transition period, as the amount of the consumption fund is reduced, the conditions of survival for many families worse, declining population (a decrease in fertility, disease, war), the level falls life, increases the desire for redistribution of wealth by force, by means of revolutionary terror, plunder.

It meets fierce resistance owners who do not want to part with wealth. Confrontation – until the interstate and civil wars – the various social, political, national, religious forces, in turn, negatively affects the production, destroys the productive strength, throws back the society, leading to a loss of cultural heritage. Fall of the empire, the federation. State law and lose much of its strength, rising crime, bureaucracy erodes corruption. Sometimes it ends after a hard, disastrous for the country shocks (especially if the inner expansion is supplemented and enhanced external stimulus, a war of aggression or a more powerful neighbor), the disappearance of local civilizations who complete at this last turn of the spiral of history their life cycle. But most of the output to a new level of economic growth makes it inevitable political order and state-legal system – in the interest of new owners who need protection of their property and how to multiply.

System may have 'different legal form – from democracy to monarchy or tyranny (Outright dictatorship) – but in any case, it supports the social and political order necessary for the establishment and sustainable operation of a new civilization. Institutionalized economic and socio-political system receives an ideological reinforcement, justification, and implementation in the spiritual world of society, on top of the pyramid. Scholars have argued the need for an objective, fair and eternity triumphed system. The ideologists of the clergy and consecrated it, the dominant ethical norms to adapt to its values. Education contributes to the reproduction, transmission to the next generation core its values. Consequently, the change is related to the coup of civilizations at all levels of the pyramid of society, and the upheaval that occurs in a regular sequence, and relies on a combination of legacy frameworks genotype of each of its subsystems with mutually agreed changes that enrich this genotype and help to better adapt to changing internal and external conditions of human life at the next turn of the spiral of history.

Integrated System
Dec 27th, 2017 by thesuper

" Now we know that the airplane transported chemical agents, arms and money landed and took off here with the cocaine shipments. If, as we create, the CRAF the cultures reaped in the last two years, would not be crazy to think that around 80 tons of the alkaloid they were process in this region " , General Socha said to him in return. In October of 2001, six Colombian governmental organizations that comprise of the Integrated System of Monitoring of Cultivos Ilcitos (SIMCI) received a complete report, according to which the planted surfaces of illicit cultures have increased in all the DMZ.149 Maps written up on the base of the information provided by the surveys of television by satellite and photographies seizures from special-purpose airplanes did not leave to any doubt that the cocaine cultures in a surface 16,000 hectares. This information showed that the 12 percent of all the illicit cultures denounced by the satellites is within the zone of distension and, according to published official numbers in October of 2001, the 12 percent is equivalent to 144,600 hectares. The signals of the satellite also showed that in the south of the Caquet, the outskirts of the zone and near the municipalities of Cartagena of the Chair and Remolinos of the Cagun, another 7,500 hectares are seeded with cocaine. According to governmental sources, the existence of these plantations now. The CRAF also thinks that they participate in the culture of the narcotic.

The satellite imageries that also appear in the report of October of 2001 showed the existence of 420 hectares seeded with poppy. After the fundamentalist regime talibn in Afghanistan prohibited the narcotic production, the posters of the drug began to look for new suppliers. Pakistan and Afghanistan the drug dealers arrived at Colombia, in contact with the poster of Cali, and she taught to them how to work the narcotic and the process until she becomes heroin.

History Of The Mafia
Nov 26th, 2017 by thesuper

The Mafia in Sicily was born in the Middle Ages as a society that protects the peasants during the French and Spanish occupation of the island. To protect local residents created a special armed squads, not really trusting representatives of the authorities, and relying solely on their own. The term is derived from the Mafia Arabic word that means 'shelter'. Mafia, or 'men of honor' – they were members of the national armed forces, which in the 13th century attacked the wealthy estates. But by the 19th century, the situation has changed dramatically. Local mobsters on the contrary began to work on large landowners in Sicily, vykolachivaya of peasant land rent. Before the Second World mafia war existed only in rural areas. Its main function was the 'protection' of the peasants for a fixed rent.

The terms 'Cosa Nostra' and the 'omerta' was quite clear Sicilians have always been convinced that all problems must be solved in a narrow range without involving outsiders. In the early 20th century was the first attempt to fight the Mafia. When to come to power in Italy of Mussolini, he ordered the destruction of all illegal formation on the island. Mussolini introduced to the island and the army was able to reduce the number of ten times the Mafia. During the Second War, the Allies used the mafia to get explored on the island.

It was absolutely priceless in 1943 year at the landing of Allied troops in Sicily. It is thanks to the Mafia, Italy has been released in record time and relatively small losses. In response, for services rendered mob demanded that the Allies certain privileges after the war. By the same author: Tony Parker. Organized crime control almost every aspect of daily life of the island. A new wave of mafia was mene picky in choosing the means of enrichment. Mafiosi began to operate in less 'Respectable' areas – such as drug trafficking.

Rodrigo Bragio
Jun 13th, 2017 by thesuper

The necessity of a efusivo meeting between the journalistic field and historiogrfico field becomes necessary so that if of you to the kept out of society ones that they are the grace of a communication of the miditico market that controls the type and the form of the information. It has an unequivocal necessity of popularizao of the knowledge, but not of the banalizao of the same, and yes a interseco more effective enters the fields of the knowledge so that if it raises the level of knowledge of the receiver of this information. 4. Bibliographical references: BAUMAN, Zygmunt. Liquid modernity. 1 ed.

Rio De Janeiro: J. Zahar Ed, 2001. BERGSON, Henri. Substance and Memory. Assay on the relation of the body with the spirit. So Paulo: Martins Sources, 1990.

BONALDO, Rodrigo Bragio. Presentismo and presentificao of the past: the journalistic narrative of History in the Collection Brasilis Land de Eduardo Bueno. Dissertao de Mestrado. Porto Alegre: UFRGS. 2010. BOSI, Ecla. For even more analysis, hear from sela ward. Memory and society. 5. Ed. So Paulo: Company of the letters, 1994. BOURDIEU, Pierre. On the Television. Rio De Janeiro: Jorge Publishing Zahar. 1997. GIDDENS, Anthony. Modernity and Identity. Rio De Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 2002. HALBWACHS, Maurice. The collective memory. So Paulo: Centauro, 2004. LE GOFF, Jacques. History and Memory. 5 ed. Campinas: Unicamp publishing company. 2003. STRAW, Blond Cssia R. Televising media and history: metodolgicos notes. In: III National Symposium of Cultural History. Florianpolis: 2006. SAINTS, Milton. For one another globalization: of the only thought to the conscience universal.18 Ed. Rio De Janeiro: Record publishing company. 2009. SEIXAS, Jacy Alves of. Passages of memory in history lands: problematic current. IN: Brescini, Stella & Naxara, Mrcia (org.) Memory (reverse speeds) feeling. Investigations on a sensible question. Campinas: Unicamp, 2004. SILVERSTONE, Roger. Why to study media? So Paulo: Loyola editions. 2002.

Sociocultural Phenomenon
Sep 1st, 2016 by thesuper

AN Malukalo Cossacks of Russia as a sociocultural phenomenon of Cossacks history goes back centuries. His fate was also great, and tragic. Brave pioneers of Russian borderlands and fearless warriors, founders of the riots and the robbers Knights of Christianity and atheists – all of the Cossacks. Napoleon admired them and feared the Germans, there were legends about them and they were hated by those for whom walked a good Cossack whip. After the Great Russian Revolution in a short period Cossacks would seem to have been forgotten. But during the Great Patriotic War the Cossack units clearly manifested themselves, and fought and 'against' and 'for' fascists. Soon, however, the Cossacks actually almost 30 years has been 'forgotten' in USSR. In the late 1980s. we have witnessed an ambiguous and contradictory process of revival of the Cossack communities as social organizations. A number of legislative acts (the RSFSR Law 'On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples' dated April 26, 1991; Presidential Decrees "On Measures to Implement the Law of the Russian Federation 'On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples" in respect of the Cossacks' June 15, 1992 632 "On reforming the military structures, and the border internal forces in the North Caucasus region and the state support of the Cossacks' on March 15, 1993, decision of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 22, 1994 355 "On the concept of public policy toward the Cossacks' and 'Basic concepts of public policy in relation to the Cossacks', the Presidential Decree "On the Main Directorate of Cossack Forces under the President of the Russian Federation 'on January 20.

Jun 19th, 2016 by thesuper

When we speak unpretentiously of estudantil movement, we remember immediately estudantis bosoms, the National Union of the Students, the Brazilian Union of Secundaristas Students, and the Free DCE Pablo Freire, entity that represents the academics of the UNEMAT, in a way that nor always we have conscience of the historiogrficos processes that had constituted the identity of the estudantil movement as it is today. Brazilian youth always breathed revolutionary airs, either through the mining inconfidncia, either for the revolution farroupilha. Following this trend, here it is that the first shouts of the Estudantil Movement still blow up in Brazil – Empire (doravante ME). No longer century XX, in 11 of August of 1937, the Brazilian students decide, in the attempt to organize and to fortify its fights for the improvement of the education, to establish the National Union of the Students, in the I National Congress of the Students. During the Military dictatorship, from 1968, the Law Suplicy de Lacerda places in the illegality JOINS it and the UEE? s (Unions State of Students), that they start to act in clandestinity.

All the instances of the estudantil representation are submitted to the MEC. But the fight continues e, in 1965 JOINS, it more than convokes a strike of seven a thousand students, who paralyze the University of So Paulo (USP). It is impossible JOINS to debate and not to say it of its mrtires, young that had given its lives for its ideals: in 28 of March of 1968, Edson student Luis Souto Rasp is died during a manifestation against the closing of the Calabouo restaurant, in Rio De Janeiro. In the following day, more than 50 a thousand students leave to the streets the River in cortejo fnebre. For many, 1968 still are known as ' ' the year that not terminou' ' , due to hundred of confrontations and you strike of ME with the military Government.

Popular Culture
Apr 1st, 2015 by thesuper

Currently is very argued on the culture concept, this that has its definition as being a net of meanings that give sensible to the world that surrounds an individual, that is, the society. This net engloba a set of diverse aspects, as beliefs, values, customs, laws, moral and etc. 1 in other words culture can be understood as being everything what the man produces as music, art, dances and the material production even though. The Brazilian congresses have produced, since the first one, in 1951, coincident one with the Centenarian of Silvio Romero, definitions that are perfected, allowing to decorate the proper folclrico fact with the diversity of the characterization of the incorporeal patrimony, as it considers, now, the National Commission of Folklore, in the document directed to the Parliamentary Front of Defense of the Popular Culture, of the federal camera. 2 That is, about quarrels on what it is incorporeal culture, the Brazilian panorama comes if widening giving to it thus to a new boarding of the concept the what concerns the incorporeal patrimony.

However with all these diverse and rich traditions the favored population starts to exist a distinction of the destined culture more, considered as erudite culture. On the other hand a new culture appears, this that is characterized by a despadronizao of the society, thus disdaining the requirements that the society establishes that it can be understood as against culture. However the popular culture is the one that has greater thus relevance as for the destined studies the culture, since this is directed the great population, becoming accessible all the public. Its vast diversity is one of the factors that contribute for the accomplishment of research. However it has if the folklore as one of the main examples of incorporeal patrimony.

National Party
Nov 26th, 2013 by thesuper

Methodology From the quarrels regarding the concepts of individual and collective cultural identity, memories, under the perspective of the historical conscience, we will look for to investigate if the perception of that tradition of the degustation of the Sheep in the pertaining hole to the city of Mouro Field if of on account of its close relation with the local cultural context or if only in consequncia of strategies economic politics and had transformed that it into cultural patrimony, from the decade of 1990, with the denomination of the National Party of the Sheep in the hole, the production and commercialization of the plate in a tool of regional development. Had to the fact of this research to be of character not-deed of division, the work will be developed by means of research methods that will involve the use of primary sources and register, disponibilizadas in sites of search it saw Internet, and verbal sources, by means of interviews, as well as the same ones will be recorded as depositions for, later, being transcribing. Of this form, we believe that the questions that we select to make the interviews will serve, for the moment, as tips important to base our analysis, quarrel, production diffusion of this thematic one. Ahead of this, the research will be developed on the basis of the following open questions: 1) Which is the world logic that guideline its referring vision to the plate ‘ ‘ tpico’ ‘ Sheep in the Hole? 2) Of where and as its vision of referring tradition to ‘ was constituted; ‘ plate tpico’ ‘ Sheep in the Hole as historical knowledge? 3) Where it has a relation between its daily one and to the referring tradition and implantation of the party Sheep in the Hole? 4) You are deferred payment in agricultural or urban area? As you see the relation of the man of the field with the referring question to ‘ ‘ plate tpico’ ‘ Sheep in the Hole? 5) Where measure its previous knowledge regarding the plate Sheep in the hole influence the construction of new learnings and identities? 6) Which important influence you see you enter the relation of the plate Sheep in the hole with the process of the historical education of the children of this locality? 7) ‘ ‘ As the prescription is transmitted of it of generation the generation throughout the time? 8) In accordance with its knowledge, as if of a I will choose of the ingredients for the confection of the plate Sheep in the hole? E, still, which the origin of the ingredients? 9) In accordance with its knowledge, as was generated the knowledge of the relations between the ingredients and its form of preparation? 10) Why the sheep use, it is an animal whose creation is traditional in the region? 11) You consider the plate Sheep in the hole as being a typical plate of the region? He justifies its reply.

Enriques Miranda
Nov 5th, 2013 by thesuper

Maria of Riba de Vazela, with generation. a toponmico Portuguese last name, of the Latin Miranda that means ' ' worthy thing of admiration ' '. The members of this family had taken the name of the city of Miranda, where they had had the alcaidaria-mor. It is also a Spanish last name, a knight of the house of Ponce de Leon it populated in Asturias and it gave to origin the ancestry Miranda, being Albar Diaz de Miranda the first one to use the name. This family it took off the nickname of the city of Miranda, in Portugal, where they had had alcaidaria-mr, the knight Obro de Miranda if found with King Godo D. Rodrigo in the battle of Guadalete, in 714, being later one of first a if to congregate King D.

Pelagio. In Portugal, Alfonso and D. Emlia Gonalves de Miranda descend the same of archbishop D. Martim. The Miranda variation also exists Enrique, formed nickname also of Portuguese origin from the marriage of aires of Miranda, alcaide-mor of Viosa Village (son of Martim Alfonso de Miranda, 2 Gentleman of the first-born son of the Patameira, and grandson of D.

Martim Alfonso de Miranda or of Charneca, Bishop of Coimbra of 1386 the 1398, with D. Briolanja Enriques, son of D. Fernando Enriques, 2 Mr. of Barbacena, and great-granddaughter of Enrique II of Castile, in the time of King D. Duarte of Portugal. Some of its members had also used the form Enriques de Miranda. It has two Portuguese noblirquicos headings used by members of this family: of the Condes de Sandomil and the Visconde de Sousel. In Brazil this family possesss some figures of prominence in arts, in literature, music and the politics. In Pernambuco, the Mirandas diverse areas of cultural, social and economic activities are dedicated to it. In Parnamirim it has Miranda musicians, professors, entrepreneurs, comrciantes and professionals of the education and the farming one. Two branches had moved to the Brazilian Northeast in century XVIII, more necessarily for the Paraba and Pernambuco, where if they had dedicated to the creation of sheep and cattle and the plantation of sugar cane and cotton.

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